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PEMERINTAHAN MAHASISWA SEBAGAI MINIATUR PEMERINTAHAN NEGARA

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Oleh : Fikri Surya Islami
Unit Kegiatan Harian Jurnalistik

Bukan hanya kompleks hunian elit yang mempunyai miniatur indah yang mempunyai kemiripan hampir 100% dengan aslinya. Tapi, ternyata hal yang sama juga terjadi pada pemerintahan negara, ya pemerintahan negara pun punya miniatur. Bukan dalam bentuk gugusan pulau-pulau Indonesia yang diimitasi dalam bentuk mini atau duplikat mini lainnya. Tapi di sini, saya menyebutnya dengan “Pemerintahan Mahasiswa”. Atau yang umum disebut organisasi mahasiswa internal-kampus.
Pemerintahan mahasiswa merupakan miniatur pemerintahan negara, tentunya dengan menjiplak sistem demokrasi trias politica. Jika kita merujuk pada kalimat yang mengawali paragraph ini, seharusnya pemerintahan mahasiswa ini terdiri dari tiga Lembaga, yaitu: eksekutif, legislative, dan yudikatif. Kira-kira seperti itulah mahasiswa yang tergabung di dalamnya menyebutnya.
Sekarang saya sadar, ternyata Lembaga eksekutif itu bukan cuma diisi oleh presiden saja. Mahasiswa pun mempunyai hak yang hampir sama, mereka juga bisa berperan menjadi badan eksekutif. Organisasi Mahasiswa Internal-Kampus adalah Organisasi mahasiswa yang melekat pada pribadi kampus atau universitas, dan diakui di lingkungan perguruan tinggi. Untuk memajukan programnya, Lembaga ini memperoleh pendanaan secara mandiri, pendanaan perguruan tinggi, kementrian atau Lembaga, dan pemerintah atau non pemerintah. Salah satu bentuknya berupa Ikatan Organisasi Mahasiswa, seperti Badan Eksekutif Mahasiswa (BEM) dan Dewan Mahasiswa (DEMA). Kewenangan pengaturan sepenuhnya ada di tangan pemimpin perguruan tinggi yang dituangkan dalam Statuta (UU No. 12 Tahun 2012).
Organisasi internal kampus dapat bergabung dalam skala daerah, nasional dan bahkan internasional. Gabungan organisasi internal-kampus beberapa perguruan tinggi ini disebut organisasi antar-kampus. Para aktivis organisasi mahasiswa internal-kampus pada umumnya juga berasal dari kader-kader organisasi ekstra-kampus seperti : Pergerakan Mahasiswa Islam Indonesia (PMII), Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI), Gerakan Mahasiswa Kristen Indonesia (GMKI), Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Indonesia (GMNI), Perhimpunan Mahasiswa Katolik Republik Indonesia (PMKRI), atau sejenisnya yg bernaung di bawah Komite Nasional Pemuda Indonesia (KNPI), ataupun aktivis-aktivis independen yang berasal dari berbagai kelompok studi atau kelompok kegiatan lainnya. Saat pemilu mahasiswa di tuntut untuk memilih Ketua BEM, ketua senat mahasiswa, yang akan bertarung antar organisasi-organisasi ekstra-kampus sangat terasa. Dan di pimpin oleh Komisi Pemilihan Umum Mahasiswa sebagai pelaksana pemilihan baik di tingkat rektorat atau kampus dan juga di tingkat fakultas masing-masing.
Keresahan mahasiswa terhadap permasalahan yang terjadi di Indonesia pada masa orde lama merupakan salah satu alasan didirikannya Dewan Mahasiswa. Dewan Mahasiswa dan Majelis Mahasiswa adalah lembaga kemahasiswaan tingkat Universitas. Dewan Mahasiswa ini sangat independen, kritis, bijak terhadap masalah-masalah internal maupun eksternal kampus dan merupakan kekuatan yang cukup diperhitungkan sejak Indonesia merdeka hingga masa Orde Baru berkuasa. Ketua dewan mahasiswa selalu menjadi kader pemimpin nasional yang diharapkan dan diperhitungkan pada jamannya.
Masa Dewan Mahasiswa dan juga Majelis Mahasiswa di Indonesia berakhir pada tahun 1978-an ketika pemerintah memberangus aksi kritis para mahasiswa dan berujung pada dibekukannya Dewan Mahasiswa. Kegiatan politik di dalam kampus juga secara resmi dilarang. Kebijakan itu dikenal dengan nama kebijakan Normalisasi Kehidupan Kampus (NKK) dan pengganti lembaga tersebut adalah badan koordinasi kemahasiswaan (BKK). Maka sebagai ganti diberlakukannya kebijakan NKK dan BKK maka dibentuklah Senat Mahasiswa pada 1978 – 1989. Lembaga ini dimaksudkan untuk mengisi bagian eksekutif dan Badan Perwakilan Mahasiswa (BPM) sebagai legislatifnya, tapi hanya untuk di tingkat fakultas.
Namun tidak lama waktu berselang, pada tahun 1990 dibentuklah Senat Mahasiswa tingkat perguruan tinggi namun pembatasan ruang gerak tetap diperoleh dengan pelarangan menyerupai Dewan Mahasiswa. Kemudian Senat Mahasiswa menjelma menjadi badan legislative termasuk pula pada bagian fakultas, dan untuk bagian eksekutif diisi oleh badan pelaksana Senat Mahasiswa yang kemudian namanya disederhanakan menjadi Badan Eksekutif Mahasiswa (BEM).
Pasca era reformasi negeri ini membutuhkan sebuah harapan baru, maka setelah pemerintahan yang otoriter dan pengekangan terhadap hak-hak mahasiswa, muncullah Badan Eksekutif Mahasiswa (BEM). Sejatinya Badan Eksekutif Mahasiswa (BEM) adalah organisasi mahasiswa intra kampus yang merupakan lembaga eksekutif di tingkat Universitas atau Institut. Dalam melaksanakan program-programnya, umumnya BEM memiliki beberapa departemen. Dengan semangat mahasiswa sebagai agent of change (agen pengubah) , BEM mencoba menjadi sebuah lembaga yang bisa mewadahi aspirasi mahasiswa yang memiliki semangat untuk melakukan perubahan, dalam paradigma, emosional, intelektual sekaligus nilai-nilai religious dengan berlandaskan Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi yaitu Pendidikan (Pengajaran), Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. Ditambah dengan tugasnya untuk mengikat tali persaudaraan seluruh Mahasiswa di Perguruan Tinggi / Universitas tempatnya bernaung.
Mungkin sebagian dari kalian bertanya-tanya mengapa kita perlu mengetahui hal-hal semacam ini, bahkan untuk yang tidak tergabung di dalamnya sekalipun. Ada yang tahu ?
Jawabannya sangat sederhana, “Karena kita sebagai mahasiswa terlibat di dalamnya”. Ya, secara tidak sadar kenyataannya kita memang terlibat di dalamnya meskipun kita bukan anggota dari organisasi intern tersebut. Semua mahasiswa ikut terlibat, karena lembaga inilah yang menjadi jantung penggerak massa ini untuk menyuarakan perubahan. Dan massa yang digerakkan adalah kita mahasiswa. Tentu gerakan-gerakan yang dilakukan bukan hanya dalalm bentuk unjuk rasa semata, tapi ada banyak cara lain yang dapat diupayakan bersama untuk perubahan ini.
Kita sebagai orang-orang yang mengenal baca tulis, tidak buta akan fakta dan mampu membedakan yang mana yang baik untuk negeri ini tentunya harus pandai-pandai dalam mencari jalan keluar dari kemelut negeri ini. Nah, di sinilah peran penting kita sebagai mahasiswa dan pemerintahannya. Mengingat negara kita berlandaskan hukum dan menganut sistem demokrasi, maka untuk itu kita harus bijak dalam bertindak. Anarkisme dan perusakan fasilitas negara sangat tidak bisa dibenarkan, karena saya rasa itu tidak akan membuat keadaan negeri ini menjadi lebih baik, malah justru sebaliknya. Mengutamakan kepentingan rakyat adalah yang utama.
Penggagasan terhadap terminologi perguruan tinggi sudah tidak dapat dipisahkan lagi dari suplemen utamanya yaitu mahasiswa. Maka hal ini menjadi jawaban atas agresivitas mereka selama ini. Namun kebijakan NKK dan BKK sukses mematikan gerakan mahasiswa yang berakibat mahasiswa tidak lagi focus terhadap gerakan melawan pemerintah, tetapi hanya terfokus pada pendidikannya dan memperoleh IPK tinggi.
Mahasiswa mempunyai peran penting dalam Sejarah Indonesia. Mahasiswa selalu menggagas perubahan. Dalam berbagai peristiwa, mahasiswa selalu tampil di depan. Mahasiswa adalah bagian dari masyarakat yang memiliki karakteristik dengan melibatkan diri dalam aksi, terutama protes atas tindakan yang menyimpang, dan melakukan demonstrasi untuk mendapatkan kebebasan. Sebagai contoh, gerakan yang menentang kebijakan NKK/BKK pada 1978. Kebijakan yang dibuat oleh Daoed Joesoef, Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan saat itu.
Sadar dengan keadaan yang ada, maka sangat diperlukan upaya untuk mengembalikan kesadaran kritis mahasiswa dalam merespon gejala social yang dihadapinya. Mahasiswa diharapkakn mampu menjadi penyuluh pada basis masyarakat baik dalam ruang lingkup yang kecil maupun luas .
Harus kuakui kesempurnaan sebuah pemerintahan yang menganut trias politica hanya terjadi apabila dilengkapi dengan Lembaga yudikatif guna untuk menyeimbangkan kedua Lembaga di atasnya. Namun sejauh ini belum ada mahasiswa yang mampu menjalankan ketiganya degan optimal dan hanya cenderung kepada eksekutifnya saja. Akan tetapi, selama masih ada mahasiswa yang peduli dengan permasalahan social, kampus, dan ngeri ini, Fungsi Pencerdasan, Penjagaan Nilai-Nilai Moral kebaikan, Advokasi, Persatuan Mahasiswa dan Pengabdian Masyarakat seharusnya bisa terlaksana dengan baik di setiap lembaga pemerintahan mahasiswa.
Semoga bermanfaat, bergerak atau tergantikan!

#FamilyForever

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