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HARI TANPA TEMBAKAU

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Tanpa Tembakau Sedunia pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO). Peringatan ini terus digaungkan setiap 31 Mei agar masyarakat dunia mengetahui masalah dan komplikasi mengunyah atau merokok tembakau.
WHO meletakkan harapan besar agar peringatan ini dapat menyadari dan mendorong orang-orang untuk mengurangi atau sama sekali menghentikan konsumsi tembakau dalam bentuk apapun di seluruh dunia. Tak lupa, peringatan ini membawa pesan bahaya penggunaan tembakau dan komplikasinya.
Penggunaan tembakau membunuh setidaknya 10 juta orang di dunia setiap tahun, sementara pengguna tembakau di seluruh dunia mencapai 1,3 miliar. Semestinya, kita mampu mengendalikan sekira 100 juta kematian dini dengan mengurangi penggunaan tembakau sebesar 20-25 persen pada 2020. Menurut statistik, tercatat sekira 37,6 persen penurunan jumlah perokok pada 1955, sedangkan 29,8 persen pada 2006.
WHO telah mengawali resolusi mereka melalui WHA40.38 pada 1987 dengan merayakan acara yang disebut ‘Hari Tanpa Rokok Sedunia’. Bertepatan pada ulang tahun WHO ke-40 pada 7 April 1988, dicanangkanlah Hari Tanpa Tembakau Sedunia pada 31 Mei. Sebelumnya, peringatan tersebut sudah diselenggarakan oleh negara anggota WHO.
Pada 1988, WHO mencanangkan resolusi lain WHA42.19 untuk merencanakan ‘Hari Tanpa Tembakau Sedunia’ setiap 31 Mei. Kala itu, mereka juga membentu sebuah program Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) untuk mendorong dunia internasional dan menarik perhatian masyarakat paham mengenai masalah penggunaan tembakau global. Sukses, program ini membantu pengadaan kebijakan kesehatan masyarakat global untuk mengendalikan penggunaan tembakau.

Sementara itu, pada 2003 WHO menggiatkan WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), yakni kesepakatan penerapan kebijakan untuk menghentikan produksi tembakau.
Terus begulir demi masyarakat dunia bebas tembakau, WHO juga berupaya melarang promosi, iklan dan sponsor tembakau saat perayaan Hari Tanpa Tembakau sedunia pada 2008 melalui kampanye ‘Pemuda Bebas Tembakau’.
Kampanye WHO mengenai Hari Tanpa Tembakau Sedunia ini menggerakkan berbagai negara, baik pemerintah maupun organisasi non-pemerintah. Mereka mengambil bagian untuk menyebarluaskan informasi seputar penggunaan tembakau dan dampaknya.
Berbagai kegiatan bahkan diselenggarakan untuk memperingati hari penting tersebut, melalui demonstrasi publik, spanduk, kampanye iklan, program pendidikan, komunikasi lisan dengan masyarakat umum. Tak pernah bosan mereka mengingatkan pentingnya berhenti merokok melalui penyelenggaraan parade dan seni publik.
Bahaya penggunaan tembakau
Kampanye yang telah beredar mengatakan, tembakau tidak hanya ditemukan dalam bentuk tembakau, tetapi juga dalam berbagai bentuk lain, seperti ceurutu, bidis, pasta gigi, kretek, pipa, tembakau kunyah, dan banyak lainnya. WHO melarang keras penggunaan produk tembakau dalam bentuk apapun.
Melalui peringatan ini, masyarakat diimbau untuk meningkatkan kesadaran penuh bahwa merokok bisa menyebabkan penyakit paru obstruktif kronis (PPOK), kanker paru, serangan jantung, stroke, penyakit jantung kronis, berbagai jenis kanker, dan lainnya.
Candu rokok bisa menyebabkan seseorang sulit menghentikan kebiasaan yang merugikan kesehatan ini. Apalagi kecanduan nikotin sangat buruk bagi kesehatan, termasuk bagi otak dan paru-paru. Pasalnya, asap tembakau dapat mengikat jalur dopamin otak seperti obat-obatan ilegal lainnya, misalnya meth, alkohol, maupun heroin. Zat-zat beracun mempersiapkan otak mengirim pesan palsu agar tubuh membutuhkan nikotin sebagai “aktivitas” untuk bertahan hidup.

Meski Hari Tanpa Tembakau Sedunia diperingati setiap tahun dengan deretan kampanye yang berlangsung, apakah perokok di Indonesia telah berkurang dari tahun ke tahun?
Berdasarkan data Kementerian Kesehatan, terjadi peningkatan prevalensi perokok dari 27 persen pada 1995, meningkat menjadi 36,3 persen pada 2013. Artinya, pada 20 tahun yang lalu dari setiap 3 orang terdapat 1 orang perokok. Sementara perbandingan masa kini, dari setiap 3 orang terdapat 2 orang di antaranya ialah perokok.
Walau kampanye terus digaungkan, bagaimanapun masyarakat harus betul menanamkan kesadaran diri untuk berhenti merokok. Setiap orang yang sadar akan bahayanya dan para perokok berupaya untuk berhenti merokok, setidaknya mereka berkontribusi pada menurunkan data statistik perokok aktif ke depannya.

 

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