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HARI LAHIR PANCASILA

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1 Juni – Hari Lahir Pancasila

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Peringatan ini berlatar belakang dari rapat para pendiri bangsa dalam Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) di Gedung Chuo Sangi In, Jakarta, yang pada masa kolonial Belanda merupakan Gedung Volksraad—sekarang dikenal sebagai Gedung Pancasila.
BPUPKI alias “Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai” merupakan badan yang dibentuk oleh pemerintah kolonial Jepang pada 29 April 1945 sebagai rekayasa Jepang untuk mendapatkan dukungan rakyat Indonesia bahwa Jepang akan memberikan kemerdekaan kepada Indonesia.
Dalam rapat BPUPKI pada 1 Juni 1945, Soekarno menyampaikan pidato mengenai lima dasar negara yang dia sebut demean nama Pancasila.
Sejarang Singkat
LAHIRNYA Pancasila adalah judul pidato yang disampaikan oleh Soekarno dalam sidang Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai (bahasa Indonesia: “Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan”) pada tanggal 1 Juni 1945. Dalam pidato inilah konsep dan rumusan awal “Pancasila” pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Soekarno sebagai dasar negara Indonesia merdeka. Pidato ini pada awalnya disampaikan oleh Soekarno secara aklamasi tanpa judul dan baru mendapat sebutan “Lahirnya Pancasila” oleh mantan Ketua BPUPK Dr. Radjiman Wedyodiningrat dalam kata pengantar buku yang berisi pidato yang kemudian dibukukan oleh BPUPK tersebut.
Menjelang kekalahan Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang di akhir Perang Pasifik, tentara pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia berusaha menarik dukungan rakyat Indonesia dengan membentuk Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai (bahasa Indonesia: “Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan” atau BPUPK, yang kemudian menjadi BPUPKI, dengan tambahan “Indonesia”).
Badan ini mengadakan sidangnya yang pertama dari tanggal 29 Mei (yang nantinya selesai tanggal 1 Juni 1945). Rapat dibuka pada tanggal 28 Mei 1945 dan pembahasan dimulai keesokan harinya 29 Mei 1945 dengan tema dasar negara. Rapat pertama ini diadakan di gedung Chuo Sangi In di Jalan Pejambon 6 Jakarta yang kini dikenal dengan sebutan Gedung Pancasila. Pada zaman Belanda, gedung tersebut merupakan gedung Volksraad (bahasa Indonesia: “Perwakilan Rakyat”).
Setelah beberapa hari tidak mendapat titik terang, pada tanggal 1 Juni 1945, Bung Karno mendapat giliran untuk menyampaikan gagasannya tentang dasar negara Indonesia merdeka, yang dinamakannya “Pancasila”. Pidato yang tidak dipersiapkan secara tertulis terlebih dahulu itu diterima secara aklamasi oleh segenap anggota Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai.
Selanjutnya Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai membentuk Panitia Kecil untuk merumuskan dan menyusun Undang-Undang Dasar dengan berpedoman pada pidato Bung Karno tersebut. Dibentuklah Panitia Sembilan (terdiri dari Ir. Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, Mr. AA Maramis, Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso,Abdul Kahar Muzakir, Agus Salim, Achmad Soebardjo, Wahid Hasjim, dan Mohammad Yamin) yang ditugaskan untuk merumuskan kembali Pancasila sebagai Dasar Negara berdasar pidato yang diucapkan Bung Karno pada tanggal 1 Juni 1945, dan menjadikan dokumen tersebut sebagai teks untuk memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Setelah melalui proses persidangan dan lobi-lobi akhirnya rumusan Pancasila hasil penggalian Bung Karno tersebut berhasil dirumuskan untuk dicantumkan dalam Mukadimah Undang-Undang Dasar 1945, yang disahkan dan dinyatakan sah sebagai dasar negara Indonesia merdeka pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945 oleh PPKI.
Dalam kata pengantar atas dibukukannya pidato tersebut, yang untuk pertama kali terbit pada tahun 1947, mantan Ketua BPUPKI Dr. Radjiman Wedyodiningrat menyebut pidato Ir. Soekarno itu berisi “Lahirnya Pancasila”.
Pesan Moral
Secara formalitas hampir semua rakyat Indonesia mengakui bahwa dasar negara kita adalah Pancasila. Pertanyaan mendasar sekarang adalah apakah seluruh rakyat Indonesia, baik yang menjadi penguasa maupun rakyat biasa sudah menerima sepenuhnya Pancasila dan berusaha mengimplementasikannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari ? kalau memperhatikan kondisi bangsa yang saat ini masih terpuruk dengan berbagai krisis yang belum kunjung selesai, rasanya kita sebagai bangsa harus berani mengakui bahwa nilai-nilai Pancasila belum sepenuhnya kita amalkan. Pancasila masih sebatas retorika dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara.
Oleh karena itu, solusi untuk mengatasi masalah di atas yaitu dengan :
Pertama, membumikan Pancasila dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara. Membumikan Pancasila berarti menjadikan nilai-nilai Pancasila menjadi nilai-nilai yang hidup dan diimplementasikan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Oleh karena itu Pancasila yang sesungguhnya berada dalam tataran filsafat harus diturunkan ke dalam hal-hal yang sifatnya implentatif. Sebagai ilustrasi nilai sila kedua Pancasila harus diimplementasikan melalui penegakan hukum yang adil dan tegas.
Kedua, internalisasi nilai-nilai Pancasila, baik melalui pendidikan formal maupun non formal (masyarakat).
Ketiga, ketauladanan dari para pemimpin, baik pemimpin formal (pejabat negara) maupun informal (tokoh masyarakat). Dengan ketauladanan yang dijiwai oleh nilai-nilai Pancasila, diharapkan masyarakat luas akan mengikutinya. Hal ini disebabkan masyarakat kita masih kental dengan budaya paternalistic yang cenderung mengikuti perilaku pemimpinnya. Sudah semestinya kita bangga kepada bangsa dan negara Indonesia yang berideologikan Pancasila. Mari kita kembali ke jati diri bangsa (Pancasila) dalam menyelesaikan setiap masalah kebangsaan yang kita hadapi.

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